Regional Summary

Trade in Goods, 2020 ($ million)

Trade in Goods, 2020 ($ million)
Total Exports Exports to CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Exports to CAREC
(including PRC)
Total Imports Imports from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Imports from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan 783 218 274 6,538 2,474 3,460
Azerbaijan 13,746 577 1,009 10,746 355 1,768
PRC 2,598,228 - 40,590 2,060,258 - 25,324
Georgia 3,355 606 1,082 8,035 633 1,342
Kazakhstan 48,213 3,318 10,090 39,711 1,199 8,129
Kyrgyz Republic 1,969 492 536 3,685 722 1,459
Mongolia 7,321 0.7 6,738 5,336 29 1,809
Pakistan 22,235 972 2,842 45,788 534 13,011
Tajikistan 1,867 209 398 4,140 814 1,040
Turkmenistan 6,445 964 5,408 3,162 120 547
Uzbekistan 13,127 2,608 3,949 19,955 2,856 7,282
CAREC (excluding PRC) 119,060 9,965 - 147,096 9,736 -
CAREC (including PRC) 2,647,429 - 72,916 2,207,354 - 65,170
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: Imports are the values reported by the importing country, rather than those reported by the exporting country.
SOURCE: ADB, Asia Regional Integration Center database (accessed August 2021)

Top Exports of CAREC (excluding PRC), 2020

Top Exports of CAREC (excluding PRC), 2020
Rank HS Commodity Classification Code Commodity Description CAREC Exports ($ million) World Exports ($ million) Rank in World's Top Exports World's Top Exporter World's Top Importer
1 270900 Oils; petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 26,683 643,176 1 Saudi Arabia PRC
2 271121 Petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons; in gaseous state, natural gas 10,172 74,707 23 Norway Germany
3 710813 Metals; gold, semi-manufactured 7,358 111,876 18 United Kingdom United Kingdom
4 740311 Copper; refined, unwrought, cathodes and sections of cathodes 3,223 57,650 40 Chile PRC
5 260300 Copper ores and concentrates 3,051 59,985 37 Chile PRC
6 710812 Metals; gold, non-monetary, unwrought (but not powder) 3,011 298,936 4 Switzerland Switzerland
7 270112 Coal; bituminous, whether or not pulverised, but not agglomerated 2,253 64,553 31 Australia Japan
8 720241 Ferro-alloys; ferro-chromium, containing by weight more than 4% of carbon 1,603 5,696 528 South Africa PRC
9 100630 Cereals; rice, semi-milled or wholly milled, whether or not polished or glazed 1,550 20,375 130 India Saudi Arabia
10 284410 Uranium; natural uranium and its compounds, alloys, dispersions (including cermets), ceramic products and mixtures containing natural uranium or natural uranium compounds 1,480 3,992 742 Kazakhstan PRC
11 620322 Ensembles; men's or boys', of cotton (not knitted or crocheted) 1,428 1,606 1521 Pakistan United Arab Emirates
12 710691 Metals; silver, unwrought (but not powder) 945 21,945 116 United Kingdom United States

Intra-CAREC Trade in Goods, 2020 ($'000)

Intra-CAREC Trade in Goods, 2020 ($'000)
From
To
Afghanistan Azerbaijan PRC Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Mongolia Pakistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Imports from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Imports from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan - 37,725 500,830 139 310,317 1,259 0 870,872 61,824 424,949 571,146 2,473,968 3,460,476
Azerbaijan 41 - 617,609 441,289 128,768 5,036 34 3,799 76 84,778 52,027 354,804 1,767,549
PRC 55,323 432,761 - 476,270 6,772,144 43,235 6,736,995 1,870,098 189,015 4,444,088 1,341,354 - 25,323,544
Georgia 28 461,934 1,277,287 - 22,215 4,763 0.12 6,869 112 69,607 19,916 632,547 1,341,597
Kazakhstan 1,568 25,920 11,706,989 47,659 - 293,863 7 59,236 10,885 0 761,358 1,198,890 8,128,753
Kyrgyz Republic 78 1,833 2,876,413 18,212 525,068 - 520 1,661 30,077 6,756 740,318 722,242 1,459,078
Mongolia 0 109 1,617,343 1,313 47,738 425 - 208 872 0 1,850 28,943 1,809,228
Pakistan 211,519 1,658 15,380,701 165 1,103 1,896 0.12 - 1,509 4,437 97,380 533,784 13,010,967
Tajikistan 3,001 5,171 1,018,095 10,887 570,251 28,056 0 2,054 - 0 289,259 813,971 1,040,256
Turkmenistan 84 19,218 444,815 13,173 0 4,565 0 2,301 0 - 74,259 120,416 546,904
Uzbekistan 2,108 23,131 5,149,997 73,091 1,712,483 152,549 116 25,153 103,768 373,506 - 2,856,257 7,281,904
Exports to CAREC (excluding PRC) 218,426 576,698 - 605,930 3,317,944 492,411 678 972,154 209,124 964,034 2,607,512 9,735,822 -
Exports to CAREC (including PRC) 273,749 1,009,458 40,590,080 1,082,200 10,090,088 535,646 6,737,672 2,842,252 398,139 5,408,122 3,948,866 - 65,170,255
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: Imports are the values reported by the importing country, rather than those reported by the exporting country.
SOURCE: ADB, Asia Regional Integration Center database (accessed August 2021)

Trade in Services, 2019 ($ million)

Trade in Services, 2019 ($ million)
Total Exports Exports to CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Exports to CAREC
(including PRC)
Total Imports Imports from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Imports from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan 3,614 109 577 2,871 72 301
Azerbaijan 3,758 53 345 6,794 81 395
PRC 251,329 - 4,364 408,157 - 4,839
Georgia 3,367 130 323 2,202 23 119
Kazakhstan 7,340 573 2,240 15,030 425 1,534
Kyrgyz Republic 1,063 159 295 1,573 81 357
Mongolia 1,417 8 730 1,755 17 286
Pakistan 5,927 31 408 9,193 26 1,066
Tajikistan 941 51 164 1,975 113 472
Turkmenistan 1,259 66 428 3,754 92 292
Uzbekistan 2,797 308 816 5,278 556 1,029
CAREC (excluding PRC) 31,483 1,487 - 50,425 1,487 -
CAREC (including PRC) 282,812 - 10,690 458,582 - 10,690
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: These are final balanced values, which reflect the reconciled bilateral trade flows where exports equal mirror imports.
SOURCE:OECD Balanced Trade in Services Statistics (accessed March 2021)

Trade in Services by Sector, 2019 ($ million)

Trade in Services by Sector, 2019 ($ million)
Exports of CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Exports of CAREC
(including PRC)
World Exports Imports of CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Imports of CAREC
(including PRC)
World Imports
Total services 28,119 311,311 5,992,747 40,599 541,279 5,991,777
Commercial services 26,387 308,038 5,898,861 39,728 536,695 5,897,978
Goods-related services 274 29,972 221,320 759 4,724 221,101
Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others 123 19,654 116,865 197 509 116,536
Maintenance and repair services n.i.e. 151 10,318 104,455 562 4,216 104,565
Travel 10,872 45,330 1,407,848 10,508 261,248 1,407,062
Transport 9,161 55,127 1,107,677 14,012 118,735 1,109,022
Other commercial services 6,080 177,610 3,162,016 14,448 151,988 3,160,794
Construction 411 28,372 108,201 1,471 10,748 108,052
Insurance and pension services 186 4,958 175,585 774 11,534 176,155
Financial services 268 4,172 415,189 638 3,104 413,755
Charges for the use of intellectual property n.i.e. 7 6,651 446,651 496 34,824 446,937
Telecommunications, computer, and information services 1,781 55,566 521,420 1,241 28,102 520,957
Other business services 3,274 76,522 1,408,655 9,684 59,460 1,408,897
Personal, cultural, and recreational services 154 1,350 86,316 142 4,215 86,040
Government goods and services n.i.e. 1,732 3,273 93,885 871 4,584 93,799

Intra-CAREC Trade in Services, 2019 ($ million)

Intra-CAREC Trade in Services, 2019 ($ million)
From
To
Afghanistan Azerbaijan PRC Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Mongolia Pakistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Imports from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Imports from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan - 3.3 229.3 5.8 7.7 2.7 1.2 11.3 1.6 16.5 21.6 71.6 300.9
Azerbaijan 9.5 - 314.0 23.9 15.1 3.5 1.9 5.4 3.5 6.4 11.9 81.0 395.0
PRC 468.4 292.4 - 193.4 1,666.2 136.8 721.9 377.0 112.6 361.9 508.2 - 4,838.8
Georgia 2.0 5.5 96.4 - 4.3 1.4 0.3 1.1 0.1 4.7 3.5 22.9 119.3
Kazakhstan 18.8 16.1 1,109.4 32.5 - 89.8 3.1 4.8 22.7 21.4 215.8 424.9 1,534.4
Kyrgyz Republic 2.2 1.8 275.7 5.1 44.3 - 0.7 0.7 5.2 1.3 20.1 81.4 357.1
Mongolia 2.8 1.7 269.0 1.9 6.8 1.2 - 0.9 0.2 0.1 1.7 17.1 286.1
Pakistan 12.8 2.9 1,039.8 1.2 2.1 0.5 0.2 - 1.2 3.1 2.4 26.5 1,066.3
Tajikistan 1.8 2.5 358.3 9.1 66.4 11.5 0.2 1.3 - 3.2 17.2 113.2 471.5
Turkmenistan 19.6 9.5 199.6 13.5 22.4 5.8 0.2 3.4 4.4 - 13.2 92.0 291.6
Uzbekistan 39.0 9.3 472.5 37.0 404.3 42.1 0.4 2.4 12.4 9.5 - 556.4 1,028.9
Exports to CAREC (excluding PRC) 108.5 52.6 - 129.9 573.3 158.5 8.1 31.1 51.3 66.1 307.5 1,487.0 -
Exports to CAREC (including PRC) 576.9 345.0 4,364.0 323.3 2,239.5 295.3 730.0 408.1 163.9 428.0 815.7 - 10,690.0
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: These are final balanced values, which reflect the reconciled bilateral trade flows where exports equal mirror imports.

Foreign Direct Investments, 2019 ($ million)

Foreign Direct Investments, 2019 ($ million)
Total Outflows from Country Outflows to CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Outflows to CAREC
(including PRC)
Total Inflows into Country Inflows from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Inflows from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan 53.0 1.3 4.7 38.5 0 0
Azerbaijan 214.1 36.6 36.6 1,503.9 1.8 12.6
PRC 72,138.0 - 3,224.2 138,318.9 - 26.1
Georgia 156.3 0 3.0 1,267.7 43.7 87.5
Kazakhstan 762.6 60.2 71.3 3,118.1 5.0 1,697.5
Kyrgyz Republic 106.4 3.8 3.8 208.7 42.0 380.0
Mongolia 21.6 0 0.8 2,443.3 1.1 328.4
Pakistan 280.1 2.0 2.1 2,218.0 0 751.1
Tajikistan 14.9 0.01 1.0 212.8 0 0
Turkmenistan 32.3 0 1.3 2,165.9 5.5 -32.9
Uzbekistan 121.1 3.3 8.9 2,286.3 8.2 107.2
CAREC (excluding PRC) 1,762.4 107.2 - 15,463.3 107.2 -
CAREC (including PRC) 73,900.4 - 3,357.6 153,782.2 - 3,357.6
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: Foreign direct investment flows with a negative sign indicate that at least one of the three subcomponents (equity capital, reinvested earnings, other capital related to intercompany debt) is negative and not offset by positive amounts of the remaining subcomponents.
SOURCE: ADB, Asia Regional Integration Center database (accessed February 2021)

Cumulative Foreign Direct Investments, 2001 to 2019 ($ million)

Cumulative Foreign Direct Investments, 2001 to 2019 ($ million)
Total Outflows from Country Outflows to CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Outflows to CAREC
(including PRC)
Total Inflows into Country Inflows from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Inflows from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan 500.2 15.2 93.2 1,944.8 0 476.3
Azerbaijan 6,075.6 2,973.1 2,981.2 30,711.1 81.5 130.4
PRC 820,395.3 - 42,079.1 1,810,202.1 - 412.3
Georgia 470.9 -0.6 10.9 20,437.8 3,089.6 3,776.4
Kazakhstan 6,013.4 1,863.8 2,013.1 140,390.6 161.2 20,014.5
Kyrgyz Republic 164.1 -72.0 -51.9 5,918.0 1,408.0 4,396.7
Mongolia 80.5 10.5 30.9 17,617.6 22.9 6,963.3
Pakistan 1,997.8 102.4 210.9 40,660.9 0 8,742.3
Tajikistan 50.8 13.8 15.0 5,084.9 80.5 1,630.5
Turkmenistan 34.4 0.3 3.2 37,228.4 44.0 164.3
Uzbekistan 233.5 57.3 69.5 15,721.4 76.2 748.2
CAREC (excluding PRC) 15,621.1 4,963.7 - 315,715.4 4,963.7 -
CAREC (including PRC) 836,016.4 - 47,455.1 2,125,917.5 - 47,455.1
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: Cumulative means the sum of flows from 2001 to 2019. Flows with a negative sign indicate that at least one of the three subcomponents (equity capital, reinvested earnings, other capital related to intercompany debt) is negative and not offset by positive amounts of the remaining subcomponents.
SOURCE: ADB, Asia Regional Integration Center database (accessed February 2021)

Intra-CAREC Flows of Foreign Direct Investments, 2019 ($ million)

Intra-CAREC Flows of Foreign Direct Investments, 2019 ($ million)
From
To
Afghanistan Azerbaijan PRC   Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Mongolia Pakistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Inflows from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Inflows from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Azerbaijan 0 0 10.8 0 1.3 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 1.8 12.6
PRC 3.4 0.02 - 3.0 11.2 0.01 0.8 0.03 1.0 1.2 5.6 - 26.1
Georgia 0 35.8 43.8 0 7.1 0.05 0 0 0 0 0.8 43.7 87.5
Kazakhstan 0 0 1,692.5 0 0 3.2 0 0 0 0 1.8 5.0 1,697.5
Kyrgyz Republic 1.3 0.8 338.1 0 38.2 0 0 1.6 0.01 0 0.1 42.0 380.0
Mongolia 0 0 327.3 0 0 0.6 0 0 0 0 0.6 1.1 328.4
Pakistan 0 0 751.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 751.1
Tajikistan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Turkmenistan 0 0 -38.3 0 5.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.4 -32.8
Uzbekistan 0 0 99.0 0 8.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.2 107.2
Outflows to CAREC (excluding PRC) 1.3 36.6 - 0 60.2 3.8 0 2.0 0.01 0 3.3 107.2 -
Outflows to CAREC (including PRC) 4.7 36.6 3,224.2 3.0 71.3 3.8 0.8 2.1 1.0 1.2 8.9 - 3,357.6
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: Foreign direct investment flows with a negative sign indicate that at least one of the three subcomponents (equity capital, reinvested earnings, other capital related to intercompany debt) is negative and not offset by positive amounts of the remaining subcomponents.
SOURCE: ADB, Asia Regional Integration Center database (accessed February 2021)

Cumulative Intra-CAREC Flows of Foreign Direct Investments, 2001 to 2019 ($ million)

Cumulative Intra-CAREC Flows of Foreign Direct Investments, 2001 to 2019 ($ million)
From
To
Afghanistan Azerbaijan PRC   Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Mongolia Pakistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Imports from CAREC
(excluding PRC)
Imports from CAREC
(including PRC)
Afghanistan 0 0 476.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 476.3
Azerbaijan 0 0 49.0 0 76.9 0 0 4.6 0 0 0 81.5 130.4
PRC 78.1 8.1 - 11.5 149.3 20.1 20.4 108.5 1.2 2.9 12.2 - 412.3
Georgia 0 2,799.2 686.8 0 256.2 24.4 0 0 0 0 9.8 3,089.6 3,776.4
Kazakhstan 0 172.5 19,853.3 -0.6 0 -98.4 10.5 30.9 10.4 0 35.8 161.2 20,014.5
Kyrgyz Republic 15.2 1.4 2,988.8 0.1 1,311.3 0 0 66.9 3.4 0.3 9.5 1,408.0 4,396.7
Mongolia 0 0 6,940.4 0 18.7 2.0 0 0 0 0 2.2 22.9 6,963.3
Pakistan 0 0 8,742.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,742.3
Tajikistan 0 0 1,550.1 0 80.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 80.5 1,630.5
Turkmenistan 0 0 120.3 0 44.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 44.0 164.3
Uzbekistan 0 0 672.0 0 76.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 76.2 748.2
Outflows to CAREC (excluding PRC) 15.2 2,973.1 - -0.6 1,863.8 -72.0 10.5 102.4 13.8 0.3 57.3 4,963.7 -
Outflows to CAREC (including PRC) 93.2 2,981.2 42,079.1 10.9 2,013.1 -51.9 30.9 210.9 15.0 3.2 69.5 - 47,455.1
PRC = People's Republic of China
NOTE: Cumulative means the sum of flows from 2001 to 2019. Flows with a negative sign indicate that at least one of the three subcomponents (equity capital, reinvested earnings, other capital related to intercompany debt) is negative and not offset by positive amounts of the remaining subcomponents.
SOURCE: ADB, Asia Regional Integration Center database (accessed February 2021)